The OSI Seven Layer Protocol:
The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model has seven layers. This article describes and explains them, beginning with the ‘lowest’ in the hierarchy (the physical) and proceeding to the ‘highest’ (the application).
The layers are stacked this way:
- Application Layer
- Presentation Layer
- Session Layer
- Transport Layer
- Network Layer
- Data Link Layer
- Physical Layer
01). PHYSICAL LAYER:
The physical layer, is the lowest layer of the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model. It is concerned with the transmission and reception of the unstructured raw bit stream over a physical medium. It describes the electrical/optical, mechanical, and functional interfaces to the physical medium, and carries the signals for all of the higher layers
02). DATA LINK LAYER:
The data link layer provides error-free transfer of data frames from one node to another over the physical layer, allowing layers above it to assume virtually error-free transmission over the link.
03). NETWORK LAYER:
The network layer controls the operation of the sub-net, deciding which physical path the data should take based on network conditions, priority of service, and other factors
04). TRANSPORT LAYER:
The transport layer ensures that messages are delivered error-free, in sequence, and with no losses or duplication. It relieves the higher layer protocols from any concern with the transfer of data between them and their peers.The size and complexity of a transport protocol depends on the type of service it can get from the network layer.
For a reliable network layer with virtual circuit capability, a minimal transport layer is required. If the network layer is unreliable and/or only supports data-grams, the transport protocol should include extensive error detection and recovery.
05). SESSION LAYER:
The session layer allows session establishment between processes running on different stations. It provides Session establishment, maintenance and termination: allows two application processes on different machines to establish, use and terminate a connection, called a session. performs the functions that allow these processes to communicate over the network, performing security, name recognition, logging, and so on.
06). PRESENTATION LAYER:
The presentation layer formats the data to be presented to the application layer. It can be viewed as the translator for the network. This layer may translate data from a format used by the application layer into a common format at the sending station, then translate the common format to a format known to the application layer at the receiving station.
07). APPLICATION LAYER:
The application layer serves as the window for users and application processes to access network services. This layer contains a variety of commonly needed functions, Resource sharing and device redirection, Remote file access, Remote printer access, Inter-process communication, Network management, directory services, Electronic messaging, Network virtual terminals.