Sun is the local star, a vast fiery spinning ball of burning gases –three-Quarters Hydrogen and a Quarter Helium.The star at the centre of our solar system and is responsible for the Earth’s climate and weather.
The Sun is an almost perfect sphere with a difference of just 10 km in diameter between the poles and the equator. The average radius of the Sun is 695,508 km (109.2 x that of the Earth) of which 20–25% is the core.
Here are Some Interesting & Amazing Facts About The Sun (or Sol)
- The Sun is at a mean distance of 149.60 million km from Earth.
- The light takes 8.3 minutes to travel from the Sun to Earth.
The Sun is one among the 200 billion stars in our Milky Way galaxy.
The Sun is one among the 6000 stars, which is visible to naked eye from the Earth.
The mass of Sun is 1.989 x 1030 kg (Approximately 2 million trillion-trillion kilograms).
The Sun’s energy output is 386 billion-billion megawatt.
The Earth receives 94 billion megawatts of energy from Sun. This is equivalent to 40,000 times the power requirement of United States.
The reaction taking place in Sun is nuclear fusion, same as a Hydrogen bomb.
The gravity at the surface of Sun is 28 times that of Earth.
A man weighing 60 kg in the Earth will weigh 1680 kg in the Sun.
The Sun makes up 99.86% of the mass of the solar system.
Each second the Sun loses 5 million tons of material.
The Sun’s temperature at its core is 14 million Kelvin.
The age of Sun is 4.57 billion years.
The expected lifetime of Sun is another 5 billion years or so.
The diameter of Sun is equivalent to the diameter of 109 earths.
The Sun rotates about its own axis once every 25.38 days.
The surface area of Sun is equivalent to that of 11990 earths.
The volume of Sun is equivalent to the volume of 1.3 million earths.
At one time of the year, for 186 days you cannot see the Sun in the North Pole of Earth.
Solar eclipses are visible in a narrow path, a maximum of 269 km wide.
No Total solar eclipse can last longer than 7 minutes and 40 seconds.
At any place on the Earth, a Total solar eclipse occurs on an average of once every 360 years.
A maximum of 5 solar eclipses only can occur in an year.
Each second 700 million tons of Hydrogen are converted to 695 million tons of Helium and 5 million tons of energy in the form of gamma rays.
If the Sun were the size of a beach ball then Jupiter would be the size of a golf ball and the Earth would be as small as a pea.
The pressure at the Sun’s core is 340 billion times the pressure at the Earth’s atmosphere.
The density of matter at the Sun’s core is about 150 times the density of water in the Earth.
It takes up to 50 million years for the energy produced at the core of the Sun to reach its surface.
If the Sun were to stop producing energy today, it would take 50 million years for significant effects to be felt at Earth.
If a drop sized matter from the core of the Sun is placed on the surface of the Earth, no living organism will survive for a distance of 150 km from that drop.
- Unlike the Earth, the Sun is completely gaseous; there is no solid surface on the Sun.
By weight, Sun comprises of 73% hydrogen, 25% helium, 1.5% carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, and 0.5% all other elements.
By volume, Sun comprises of 92.1% hydrogen, 7.8% helium and 0.1% all other elements.
The Sun’s gravitational pull is so strong that, even Pluto, a planet 5.9 billion kilometer away from Sun, is kept in its orbit.
Escape velocity of any planet or star is the velocity required for any object to escape from the gravitational pull of that planet or star. The escape velocity of the Sun is 2.22 million km/hr.
The light takes 5.5 hours to travel from the Sun to Pluto, the outer most planets.
Proxima Centauri (Alpha Centauri C) is the star nearest to Sun. It is 4.3 light years away from Sun.
If our Sun were just an inch in diameter, the nearest star would be 445 miles away.
The Sun exhibits differential rotation. The rotation period in the equator is about 25 days, whereas in the Polar Regions it is as high as 36 days.
The Sun orbits around the center of our Milky Way galaxy once every 240 million years.
The Sun is at a distance of 30,000 light years from the center of our Milky Way galaxy and lies on one of it’s spiral arms.
The Sun along with the Solar family is orbits around our Milky Way galaxy at a velocity of 217 km/s.
The Sun has circled the Milky Way galaxy for about 20 times only since its formation.
In addition to heat and light, the Sun also emits electrons and protons, known as the solar wind which travels at a speed of 450 km/sec.
Around a trillion neutrinos from the Sun will pass through your body while you read this sentence.
Solar flares are violent explosions taking place in the Sun’s atmosphere occasionally. Solar flares can reach more than 100,000 miles away from the sun.
Sunspots appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun. Sunspots are the intense magnetic regions of Sun with magnetic field strengths thousands of times stronger than the Earth’s magnetic field.
Every eleven years, the magnetic poles of the Sun switch. This cycle is called “Solarmax”.
The luminosity of the Sun is equivalent to the luminosity of 4 trillion trillion light bulbs of 100 watt.
- All the coal, oil, gas, and wood on Earth would only keep the Sun burning for a few days.
An area of the Sun’s surface the size of a postage stamp shines with the power of 1,500,000 candles.
The energy being emitted from 1 square centimetre of the Sun’s surface is enough to burn 64 light bulbs of 100 watt.
The amount of the Sun’s energy reaching the Earth’s atmosphere (known as the Solar constant) is equivalent to 1.37 kw of electricity per square meter.
The amount of energy reaching the earth’s surface from Sun is 6,000 times the amount of energy used by all human beings worldwide.
The total amount of fossil fuel used by humans since the first civilization is equivalent to less than 30 days of energy reaching the earth’s surface from Sun.
If the sun stopped shining, all living organisms in the Earth would freeze to death, the tropics would be as cold as the poles, and the 7 seas would turn to solid ice.
In Spit Bergen, Norway at one time of the year the sun shines continuously for three and a half months.
Among the Sun and the Moon, which one is larger when viewed from our Earth? Both are almost similar sized when viewed from the Earth. Since the orbits of both Moon and Earth are elliptical, at certain times the Moon will be larger than the Sun and at certain other times, the Sun will be larger than the Moon.
After 1.1 billion years from now, the Sun will be 10 % brighter than today. The Earth’s atmosphere will completely dry out as water vapours are lost to space.
After 3.5 billion years from now, the Sun will be 40 % brighter than today. The oceans will evaporate into space and it means the end of all forms of terrestrial life.
After 5.4 billion years from now, the Sun’s core will run out of Hydrogen.
After 7.7 billion years from now, the Sun will become a Red giant. It will expand by 200 times and it will engulf the planet Mercury.
After 7.9 billion years from now, the Sun will become a White dwarf. The orbital radius of other planets, including the Venus and the Earth, will be almost double that of today.
The Sun will remain as a White dwarf indefinitely after 7.9 billion years.
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